Tag: Dentist

The Difference Between a Dentist and an Orthodontist

Accessing the best dental care can be a bit of a challenge sometimes. There are many dentists around and each of them claims to be providing the best of services. There are also some other dental health practitioners called orthodontists. You probably think that everyone who deals with teeth is a dentist. Quite on the contrary, you probably do not need the services of a dentist but rather an orthodontist. Not everybody knows what orthodontists do anyway.

Generally, orthodontists and dentists have the same agenda as far as your health is concerned. This is to enhance your oral health. However, the ways that they do this are the difference. As you might know, dentistry is not a small field but one with a whole lot of branches within it. It is also worth mentioning that a dentist can also be an orthodontist but you need not be told that not all dentists are licensed as orthodontists as well.

The similarities

The major comparison between a dentist and an orthodontist is that they both focus on your dental healthcare. An orthodontist may work in a dental office and provide the same care as a dentist. In this case, they perform the same duties. In short, they are both doctors who deal with teeth and gums.

The world of differences

For starters, orthodontists spend a lot of more time in school as a dentist specialty. It is the same thing with surgeons as they go through some few more years in school. Orthodontists normally concentrate on helping patients with teeth alignment. They fix the bite and alignment of the teeth. This might be through the use of tools such as braces and Invisalign.

Dentists mainly promote good oral hygiene and provide services relating to tooth decay, root canals, gum disease, crowns, veneers, tooth whitening, and bridges. On the other hand, orthodontists are dentists who mostly focus on the alignment of teeth and give services such as fixing misaligned teeth, crowded teeth and overbite or underbite.

Which specialist to visit

Getting to know the differences between the two profession helps you save a lot of time when you are looking for a specific procedure to be done on your teeth. So if your teeth are to be aligned, you know you have to go to an orthodontist and if you just want a dental checkup, you go to a dentist who will be able to take care of your daily dental needs. Dentists are able to treat just about any kind of dental issue and that is why they are the more popular of the two. However, you might also benefit greatly from the specialized care provided by orthodontists.



Source by William Jam Smith

Common Dentist Specialists and Their Fields

A dentist is a professional who focuses on the oral cavity of a patient and its surroundings. Most of the time, general dentistry is the usual practice of many dental professionals but there are a growing number of specialists who concentrate on one specialty in dentistry. These specialists are educated initially in general dentistry and then they take on maintenance or an advanced graduate training program, either immediately after they pass dentistry or they wait for a period of time after practicing general dentistry.

Pediatric Dentistry

Formerly known as pedodontics, this aspect of the dental profession concentrates on children starting from infancy to late childhood. This means that when the child reaches the age when the first milk tooth comes out, the parents can bring him or her to see the pediatric dentist. The professional will check the primary eruption and then asses the next others over the span of several months. He will also teach the parents how to take care of these properly in such a way that the child will feel comfortable with the parent sticking a finger in his or her mouth. There are some subspecialties under this field, such as reconstructive dentistry. When the child is older, around ten years old, the introduction of an orthodontist may be in the works if there is an apparent malocclusion, as assessed by the pediatric specialist. The orthodontist deals with the correction of crooked teeth and misaligned bites.

Prosthodontics

This specialty deals with the use of certain dental applications such as dentures, bridges and many others. The specialists in these fields work closely or are in reality the same with those who specialize with oral and maxillofacial pathology and surgery. The use and maintenance of implants fall under this field and the dentist who installs them and contains them. They may also work closely with orthodontists if the need arises.

Endodontics

These dental practitioners work on many conditions and therapies that have to do with the pulp in our dental structure. The root canal is one of the more famous treatments that these professionals may do to their patients. There may be other illnesses included under this field that the specialist may also deal with.

Oral and Maxillofacial

This is one of the more complicated fields in dentistry. It covers a broad aspect of the profession but at the same time it focuses on the structure of the oral cavity and its surroundings exclusively. The professionals who deal with this aspect can have subspecialties in it as well. The dentist can choose to concentrate of radiology, pathology or surgery. In radiology, he can take x-rays of the patient's structure and interpret the results accordingly. In pathology, he can study and diagnose the basics of the diseases that occur in the region. Although it is not common, this professional can also treat or recommend a treatment for the diseases. In surgery, the dentist does the actual implementation of the treatment and correction based on the results of both radiologic and pathological fields.



Source by Andrea Avery

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Mistakes That Can Be Prevented When Going a Dentist

Deciding on a Dentist Because of Price, Availability or Location

When looking for a dentist, people should not give primary importance to the low price being offered, location that is near their home / work, or immediate availability. The first step to consider is the training undergone by the dentist and staff, plus the ability to provide high quality preventive dental care, and to treat diseases / decay in the advanced state.

Some of the important qualities to consider are:

Dentist Training

Patients should ask about a dentist's experience and training in terms of the procedures desired or needed.

Comfort

They should inquire about the amenities, and know whether they can make treatment more comfortable – for example with nitrous oxide or similar advanced technology.

Fees and Payment Options

They should find out if dental insurance is accepted, and how much should be paid out of their pocket.

Recommendations

Patients should check out dental office reviews. They could request for a list of dentists within their jurisdiction, who are members of ADA, other professional associations or a local dental society. They could also read online reviews of other patients.

Consultation

Once patients have a list of potential dentists, they could contact or visit their office prior to making an appointment. They could ask if the dentist is a member of a renounced association like ADA, and find out which of the dental procedures are performed in-office or out. They should know how early they need to schedule checksups and cleanings.

On their first visit, they can inspect the office and see if it is clean, tidy and orderly. Are the staff members friendly? Do they carefully keep a patient's dental and medical history? Is the office child friendly? Does the front desk receptionist attend to patients immediately? Is he / she respectful?

Other Things to Keep in Mind:

Does the dentist and staff have good communication skills?

Do patients feel at ease when asking the dentist questions?

Can the recommendations / referrals of the dentist be trusted?

Is there a Digital radiography that lessens unnecessary radiation exposure in the office?

Does the office have advanced technologies, like a laser, to find cavities, digital radiography and / or intraoral cameras to detect existing problems in the mouth?

Does the office guarantee its services, as well as promote optimal dental health, and not treat patients like customers that come and go?

Selecting a Dentist Because of the Very Low Advertised Price

No one would jump out of an airplane using a cheap parachute. When patients like to maintain their teeth, they should not entrust their health to dentists who have nothing special to offer but discounted services.

3 Reasons why this can backfire:

It is like walking into a trap and being scammed when the dentist offers a very low price without revealing the hidden costs until the patient sits in the dental chair.

Usually, low price means minimal care that can make a patient more prone to decay and disease.

More often than not, patients get poor care from a dentist who lacks experience and training.

Why trust a cheap advertisement that will let patients spend more than usual for services desired or needed, when they can go for trained and experienced dentists who think about what is best for their patients.



Source by Karina Popa

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What Your Dentist Wants You To Know

Your Dentist Does not Want To See You More Than Twice A Year
No, this is not a lie. Your dentist really does not want for you to have to come into the office more than twice a year for your preventive maintenance visits (prophylaxis or "cleaning"). When your mouth is healthy it means few dental appointments, so why else do you think you get the oral hygiene lecture at every dental appointment? However, sometimes an old filling falls out or a tooth breaks, and that is when your dentist wants to see you. Dentists want to help preserve your smile and help you to keep it as healthy as you possibly can.

You Can Give Up Flossing
You read that right. Throw away your floss, right now. Oh, you did not have any? That's not a big surprise since most patients confess that they never floss at all. Instead, new research shows that water flossers like the WaterPik are just as or if not more effective than flossing. Clinical studies show that water flossers remove more bacteria from under the gums and between teeth than traditional string floss. This is because the stream of water can reach deep into gum pockets and in the concavities in the natural tooth anatomy. It's easy to handle and you can adjust the pressure or temperature to your liking. So there; Switch to a water flosser and you'll never be asked to floss again.

You Really Need To Complete Your Dental Treatment In A Timely Manner
Dental disease does not correct or reverse itself. In fact, the longer you wait, the more advanced and costly the treatment will become. So often patients put off their appointment because the pain goes away. Little do they know how often it flares back up on a Saturday night leaving them in severe pain and trying to track down the emergency line for their dentist. Usually by that point the tooth is in need of a root canal or an extraction.

Patients also delay care due to financial concerns. What is important to emphasize again, is that treatment only becomes more expensive as it becomes more advanced. There are many financing options available to dental patients that enable them to pay for their treatment in a way that is flexible and fits their lifestyle. Your dentist wants to keep your costs low and your mouth healthy.

You'll Be Forgiven
If you have not been to the dentist in ages, do not beat yourself up over it. To some people "forever" means missing one cleaning, while others it's 20 years. Every person's mouth is different and just because it's been a while does not mean the first visit back is going to be horrible. Your dentist will work with you to get back on track to a healthy mouth, and sometimes it means taking baby steps. Do not worry if you think they'll hate you for waiting so long. They will not, we promise.



Source by Roxana Lo

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How to Choose a Dentist

Your gums and teeth make up your smile and everyone knows that the smile has a big effect on the overall personality of a person. So, it is very important to choose a right kind of dentist for your beautiful teeth. Following are some tips that help you in choosing a perfect dentist for yourself.

Before starting any kind of dental checkup, you must ask for the credentials of your dentist. It will also very good if you collect some information about the past work and performance of a dentist. Also try to get information about the experience of your dental practitioner.

Sometimes it is also possible that your pocket may not match with the rates or fee of a dentist. But remember your dental care is not a thing on which you compromise. Therefore, try to find a dentist who is able to deal with your problem very competently in the low prices.

Nowadays advanced equipments and techniques are coming on the market. Before choosing any dentist it is very important to make sure that he / she is well aware about these techniques. Actually advanced methods are more efficient and less painful as compared to the outdated ones.

It is very common that some dentists have long waiting lists (especially the famous dentists). In this kind of situation you have to wait for the long period of time in order to get your appointment. Waiting for the long period of time could get worse your dental problem. So, try to find a dentist who is able to check you in a short period of time.

Today different kinds of dentists are present. The main types of dentists are endodontist, general dentist and periodontist. All these kinds of dentist are different specialists of the same field. First of all take a look at your needs and then choose the one accordingly.

Nowadays internet is the largest source of information. Go on any web browser and do some research in order to get some information about your problem. With the help of internet you can also check the history and credentials of a dentist.

Do not forget to check the license of your dentist because today many scammers are working around us. Make sure that the dentist you are going to hire has a good working experience in the past. You can also get the information about the dentist from the local health office of your town or state.



Source by Hassan Mansoor Siddiqui

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When To Pay Attention Towards Your Dentist

It is quite important to meet the Dentist at least twice a year. Generally, our busy schedules, and other compulsory duties push us to sit in an engaged situation. Though we plan to meet the Dentist as a general visit, the circumstances tie us. However, when we suddenly catch up with any Dental problems, we will rush to the dentist.

If you are neglecting a dental checkup due to the cost, time or fear, you might face all risks. Finally, the bad situation drags you to spend more on dental treatments and rupture you peace of mind. Most of us run to the dental clinic for any sudden problem in teeth. In this piece, it is explained that “When to pay attention towards the dentist?”

  • Sudden pain and swelling in the lymph nodes near face or neck may be a signal for oral cancer. While visiting to diagnose such case, the dentist will check your teeth, tongue and lymph nodes to rule out the suspicion.
  • When the gums turn puffy and they start bleeding while brushing or flossing, it is the time to take an appointment with your dentist
  • In case of infected teeth with bad breath, swelling and inflammation, visiting dental clinic help you to avoid further damage to the adjoining teeth.
  • If you feel your teeth are dull with stains, visiting dental unit will clear out the stains and make your teeth like a pearl. You will be advised to quit the habits which make the teeth staining.
  • When you have a missing tooth and try to hide it, and longing to get a bright and perfect smile, break out the barriers and consult your dentist
  • If you are already fixed up with dental fillings, crowns, dentures, then it is must visit your dentist to confirm your foreign body’s condition.
  • When you suffer from heart ailments, eating disorders, diabetes (or) undergoing radiation, chemotherapy for cancer, hormone replacement therapy, you ought to schedule with your dentist often.
  • Most of the women are caught up with dental problems during their gestational period. So, do not miss making an appointment with the dentist to save your fetus health.
  • Whenever you find any difficulty in swallowing, chewing, eat liquid or soft food until you meet the dentist
  • When you feel parched, it could be the sign of any medicine’s side effect or a medical problem
  • Bad breath, tobacco chewing, smoking cigarettes are dreadful to life. In the later period, the person may find blisters, inflammation in the mouth. Do not hesitate to consult your dentist, if the discomfort persists.
  • In case your jaw is locked, difficulty in biting, it is time to see your dentist avoid further complications.
  • If you feel any discomfort in the mouth, any mouth sores that last for more than a week, then your dentist should examine the teeth. Cold sores, Candidiasis, Leukoplakia, canker sores are the common mouth sores. Each one varies in severity and causes. Mouth sores may be the symptoms of any mouth disease. Infection from bacteria, fungus, viruses, irritation and injuries caused by dentures, braces should be treated immediately to avoid further dental injuries.
  • Plaque is a hard and sticky material that deposits to the teeth, gum line and it contains hazardous bacteria. The building of plaque results in tartar which spoils the teeth color. Irregular brushing, flossing and other criteria cause the plaque formation. If you find any discolored teeth, tartar visually, consult your dentist for further treatment to remove the deposited plaque.

“Prevention is better than cure”. Consult your dentist regularly instead of rushing at the eleventh hour.



Source by Jagat Kumar Rakesh

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Visiting a Dentist for Easy and Pain-Free Dentistry

Visiting a dentist makes many of us nervous. Dental problems are very painful and to prevent such situation or to treat dental diseases, it is inevitable to visit a dentist. A number of professional dental care centers offer treatment using advanced technology. With the change in almost all aspects of treatment, dentistry also took a new shape with the use of advanced methods of treatment and tools. This has helped many patients in minimizing pain and dealing with the trauma. Latest technology has helped to take the help of computers in getting a magnifying look inside of the mouth for proper treatment.

Professional dentists offer high-class treatment with the latest tools. They offer a range of services including implants, extractions, bridgework, root canal and much more. Your visit to a Dentist will be a new experience for sure. Apart from offering quality treatment, these dental clinics also offer after care. Unlike the traditional methods of tooth extractions or root canal treatment, there has been an increase in advanced tools to give minimum discomfort to the patients.

The modern techniques help people to overcome fear because advanced use of medical equipment and anesthesia has made dental treatment easy and less painful. There is also a significant competition among these dentists that has resulted in quality treatment. To keep up good oral hygiene, you should visit a dentist at regular intervals. They not only help in treating dental ailments but also guide you in keeping your mouth clean by suggesting cleaning techniques and oral care. Since these services are of low-cost, you need not have to burn a hole in your pocket every time you visit a dentist.

Though maintaining oral health seems easy, it needs expert guidance. Regular care and dental tips can keep toothache at bay. To take an example, there can be a number of bad habits and food intake that become responsible for tooth decay, cavities and other problems. It is important to have a full knowledge of dental care. Tooth decay is the major reason of tooth cavities as bacteria accumulates with food particles left in the mouth. When it spreads to the inner layers, you suffer pain. Moreover, structural defects or improper teeth alignment makes cleaning difficult and leads to bacterial growth.

Professional dentists who use computerized machines and advanced tools in diagnosing and treating major dental diseases can help you in maintaining complete oral health.



Source by Samuel Charlie

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What Is a General Dentist and Specialist Dentist?

The American Dental Association (ADA has 155,000 member dentists) recognizes nine (9) dental specialties. An accredited Dental Specialist has taken advanced training after graduating from dental school. The specialty training program must be recognized and accredited by the ADA Council on Dental Education at an accredited institution. Most states require a Dental Specialist to limit their practice to their specialty. An accredited Dental Specialist can elect to practice General Dentistry with specialized training. This is not a declared specialist that is limited only to their specialty. A general dentist can provide any dental treatment that they are competent and confident in doing. All of the specialty areas of dentistry can be performed by a general dentist that get the necessary training. That is why the Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) was founded with the support of the ADA.

Since 1952 the AGD has served the needs and interests of general dentists. The AGD promotes the oral health of the public and fosters the profitability of general dentists through accredited continuing dental education. The AGD helps general dentists to better serve the public. This is why 35,000 general dentists belong even though they must take accredited continuing education to maintain their membership.

The nine accredited (real) specialties:
1. Endodontics
2. Oral Pathology
3. Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
4. Orthodontics
5. Pediatric Dentistry
6. Periodontics
7. Prosthodontics
8. Public Health Dentistry
9. Oral Radiology & Imaging

Licensed dentists that hold themselves out to be specialists that have not completed an accredited training program in one of the dental specialties at an approved institution may be committing fraud. Most state Dental Practice Acts do not allow dentists to hold themselves out as a specialist in non-recognized / non-accredited "specialty". State Licensing Boards usually only allow the nine (9) ADA approved specialties and use the ADA accreditation system. Dentists that advertise and hold themselves out as a non-recognized / non-accredited "specialist" without informing the public that they are not really a specialist but only providing services in that non-recognized / non-accredited specialty area of ​​general dentistry can be disciplined and even lose their dental license in that state. This is to protect the public from unscrupulous practitioners.

A dentist that provides unproven tests and treatment may not give relief or produce a correct diagnosis.

To be fair there are organized continuing education programs and dental organizations that can be comprehensive and extremely helpful to training the practicing dentist. The Academy of General Dentistry (AGD is the 2nd largest recognized US Dental Professional Organization) has their Fellowship (FADD) and Mastership (MAGD) programs. This includes a program that requires a large number of accredited continuing education courses (FAD = 500 hours; MAGD = 1100 hours including hands-on courses) in specified fields. The Fellowship also requires a strictly administered written examination. The General Practice Board Certification (Civilian and Military) requires accredited continuing education lecture and hand-on courses, written examination and an oral examination of a comprehensive clinical case. The dentist must indicate that they are a General Dentist with the FAGD, MAGD or Board Certified GP. I believe that all 50 states have no problem with these designations but not as specialists.

Be cautious of a dental organization that provides expensive courses and is run by the person that profits financially from the courses. This can provide a conflict of interest. It may sound professional but money does strange things to people.

There are many professional dental organizations that provide valuable continuing education to scholars in practice. These organizations should not tout non-existing specialties. This can be a serious problem.

Some organizations offer training and tests but the quality must be individually investigated.

Examples of non-dental specialties:

"Amalgam Detoxification Dentistry",
"Holistic Dentistry"
"Cosmetic Dentistry"
"Esthetic Dentistry"
"TMJ Dentistry"
"Implantology"
"Implantologist",
"Certified Restorative Dentist"
"Prevention Dentistry"
"Nonsurgical Periodontics"

Beware of dentists that claim to be a "New Specialty" Dentist
1. Unrecognized field or specialty
2. Unscientific fields,
3. Have not completed an accredited advanced training program,
4. Touts membership in impressive sounding but bogus professional organization
5. Touts membership in an unrecognized professional organization,
6. Articles that are not published in Peer-Reviewed Medical & / or Dental Journals,
7. Books and articles written by non-professionals.
8. Miracle cures that only this one dentist or group of dentists can provide you because of some conspiracy or "goof"
9. Tests that are provided by a lab that is owned or run by health professionals that lost their licenses due to fraud

Remember: just because you can Google it & see on the Internet does not make it true!

Beware of hucksters!
1. Ask for credentials.
2. Ask for double blind scientific studies that are peer-reviewed and published.
3. Ask for are peer-reviewed and published articles
4. Check to see if there is a dental insurance code for the treatment.
5. Check to see if the dental insurance company covers this treatment.
6. Ask to see scientific peer-reviewed evidence for "Miracle" treatments or tests.
7. If it sounds too good to be true then BEWARE!

There are dentists with good intentions that join non-accredited bogus specialty organizations. They can want good results for their patients but may not receive the training that they really need to provide the care that they would like to provide or advertise. It is often difficult for a dentist to know which of these organizations really will provide the training and support that they need and want. It is even more difficult for the patient to determine this. When in doubt go the proven route!

There are many general and specialist dentists that follow the rules and provide you the public with quality care with compassion. When in doubt go the proven route!

Check the AGD (AGD.org), ADA (ADA.org), your state dental association / or local dental association, and ADA recognized dental specialty websites to see if the "specialty" or organization in question is recognized by the AGD, ADA, state dental associations & / or local dental association & / recognized recognized specialties. The ADA website has all of the state and local dental association and specialty websites and contact information. Remember the AGD was involved with the assistance of the ADA and headquartered in the ADA Building in Chicago. When in doubt go the proven route!

It is like going to a developing nation to get cheap dentistry. That is exactly what you usually get, Cheap Dentistry. There is a reason why that dentist can not practice in the US. You can end up paying twice. Once for the bargain or "Miracle" treatment and a second time to have it done correctly.

When in doubt go the proven route!



Source by Gary Robert Johnson

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How To Find A Dentist

Do you live in Ada? Dentist is the one you are looking for? Finding a dentist is not much of an ordeal these days. One can search online and find hundreds of options for a dentist. Ada has proper health care facilities to ensure the security of its people's health. Some of the very real factors that one needs to keep in mind while finding a dentist is the reliability of the dental care service opted for.

Here are some of the factors to keep in mind while choosing a dentist:

1. Services offered : One of the most important things to keep in mind is to inquire what are the services offered. Ask whenever the patient has a multiple patient facility or not. Whether they provide orthodontic dental care, dental implantation procedure, veneer setting process and teeth whitening.

2. Hours of operation : This factor determines the comfortability of your time of appointment. Scheduling your dentist appointment may often seem a tedious job in the busy time table of your work. It has been observed that dental clinics are now away from the traditional 9 to 5 timing and offering dental care services in weekends and after office timings as well. Inquire whether they have an after hour emergency consultation number or not.

3. Infection control procedures : This is something one must be aware of before opting for the services of dental care clinics. Ask the staff what infection control procedures do they follow? In usual cases clinics follow the guidelines set by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

4. Atmosphere : Atmosphere of the dental clinics often determines the quality of service that they have to offer. Ideally a clinic should have a calm and compositing atmosphere.

5. Office policy and procedure : Office policy should be checked before you step into the dentist's chamber. Have a discussion with the administrator in the dental clinic and inquire whether they have any compensation fee for missing an appointment or cancellation of an appointment. In case the fees come up to be steep either they have any financing or payment option or not.

6. Fees : Fees are again and always something that we need to keep in mind about. Find a dentist who has reasonable charges and is more of a dentist than a professional doing his job.

It is actually not an easy task to find a reliable dentist these days. If you live in Ada and dentist is the one you have been searching for then dentistsgrandrapids.com is a great dental care clinician to rely on, for trusted and affordable dental care.



Source by Melville Jackson

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Pediatric Dentist and the Work He Does

A pediatric dentist is an oral health care professional who takes care of a specific group of individuals. The group of individuals is children and the age range for these starts when the first deciduous tooth erupts up to the age of ten to twelve years old. Some parents actually bring their toothless child to visit the clinic just to be sure or when there are malformations in the baby. Many of these dental professionals foray into the world of surgery since there are babies who are born in this world with problems in their jaws, cleft palate and gums.
Education

The education of the prospective pediatric dental professional starts just like those in the general dentistry field. They go through a basic college course and then proceed to the dental college of their choice. The basic college course takes about four to five years while the dentistry course ranges from four to six years depending on the specialties that the hopeful dentists will take up. Most of the specialties are taken up after the entire four year dentistry course has been completed; others take up specialties after they have passed the exam for dentistry. The dentist, or at least the hopeful, needs to pass the dental board exam in order to be able to practice in the United States of America. He or she also needs to be associated with certain affiliations, organizations and groups in order to be recognized as a practicing professional.
The Practice

Dentistry is a field that is connected to medicine in a very close way. The dentist basically evaluates, diagnoses, treats and corrects problems that need to be addressed in an individual. In this case, children are brought by the parent or parents for a visit and the child is evaluated according to the examination that the professional conducts. Children who have no immediate problems are in fact recommended to undergo cleaning of the teeth by the parent with the use of a gauze bandage wrapped around a finger and rubbed on the pearly whites. The rubbing acts as brushing and gets the child used to having a foreign object inside his or her oral cavity. It also helps to really clean each tooth that has erupted.

Despite being just a milk tooth, it still needs to be cleaned and maintained because the permanent ones come out several years after and having rotten or damaged temporary ones that impair the digestion and eating style of the child. Pain and discomfort can also occur if the deciduous ones are infected or damaged too soon. The pediatric dentist can also be expected to make composite bonding with any temporary tooth that may need it. This is especially true for those that still have a long way to go before they are replaced by the permanent ones. Fillings are very common with children around the age of six to nine years old especially in a tooth related to the molars.

These are just a few of the responsibilities that a pediatric dentist may need to do for his patients. There are other more complicated ones, especially those requiring surgery.



Source by Abigail Aaronson

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